The Potsdam conference ended on a bleak note. By the end, Truman had become even more convinced that he had to pursue a harsh policy towards the Soviets. Stalin was more convinced that the United States and Great Britain had conspired against the Soviet Union. As for Churchill, he was not present at the closing ceremony. His party lost in the English election and was replaced in the middle of the conference by new Prime Minister Clement Attlee. Potsdam was the last post-war conference of the Big Three. In 1945, the Big Three organized two conferences in Yalta (February) and Potsdam (July) to find out how they would organize the world after the war. These conferences highlighted tensions between the two sides. The Potsdam meeting was the third conference of heads of state and government of the three major nations. The Soviet Union was represented by Joseph Stalin, Great Britain by Winston Churchill and the United States by President Harry S. Truman. It was Truman`s first meeting with the Big Three. President Franklin D.
Roosevelt, who died in April 1945, participated in the first two conferences – in Tehran in 1943 and in Yalta in February 1945. Despite many disagreements, Allied leaders managed to reach some agreements in Potsdam. Negotiators thus confirmed the status of Germany demilitarized and disarmed among the four zones of the Allied occupation. According to the protocol of the conference, there should be “complete disarmament and demilitarization of Germany”; all aspects of German industry that could be used for military purposes should be removed; all German military and paramilitary forces should be eliminated; and the manufacture of all military equipment in Germany was prohibited. In addition, German society should be redeveloped by the repeal of all discriminatory laws of the Nazi era and by the arrest and trial of Germans considered “war criminals” on the democratic model. The German education and judicial system should be purged of all authoritarian influence and democratic political parties would be encouraged to participate in the management of Germany at the local and national levels. However, the re-establishment of a German national government was postponed indefinitely and the Allied Control Commission (composed of four occupying powers, the United States, Great Britain, France and the Soviet Union) would rule the country during the interregnum. After the conference, Churchill wrote to Roosevelt that the Soviet Union had become a threat to the free world.
And on their return home, he and Roosevelt were both criticized for giving too much to the Soviets: the first, the Yalta conference, took place in February 1945, just months before the unconditional surrender of Nazi Germany on 8 May. Soviet Prime Minister Joseph Stalin, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt met to conduct serious discussions on Europe during the conference. For some reason, they initially agreed that it would be better to divide Germany into four zones. President Truman, write in January 1946 (but note the date – well AFTER the conference.) The main objective of the Potsdam conference was to put an end to the post-war period and to put into practice all that had been agreed in Yalta. While the Yalta meeting was rather friendly, the Potsdam conference was marked by differences of opinion that were the result of some important changes since the Yalta conference.